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Expert Panel Consultation Paper: Appendix 3

Annexe 3


  1. OECD (2010), Main Science and Technology Indicators (Vol. 2010/1). Canada's business expenditures on R&D are projected to be $14.8 billion in 2010. The figures in the table have been rounded and converted to a common currency ($US) at purchasing power parity (PPP). (Return to Reference 1)
  2. This condensed definition of innovation is borrowed from the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA). See CCA (2009), Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short, pp. 13 and 21. (Return to Reference 2)
  3. These analyses include the CCA report referenced above and State of the Nation 2008, by the Science, Technology and Innovation Council (STIC, 2009). BERD intensity is defined as business expenditures on R&D (BERD) as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). (Return to Reference 3)
  4. OECD productivity database (accessed December 2010). (Return to Reference 4)
  5. Centre for the Study of Living Standards (2010), Aggregate Income and Productivity Trends: Canada vs. the US. (Return to Reference 5)
  6. Finance Canada, Budget 2010: Leading the Way on Jobs and Growth, p. 86. (Return to Reference 6)
  7. CCA (2009), op. cit., p. 85. (Return to Reference 7)
  8. Statistics Canada (2010), Industrial Research and Development: Intentions 2009 (Catalogue no. 88-202-X). (Return to Reference 8)
  9. Statistics Canada (2009), Gross Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development in Canada (GERD), and the Provinces (Catalogue no. 88-221-X). (Return to Reference 9)
  10. Statistics Canada (2010), Industrial Research and Development: Intentions 2009 (Catalogue no. 88-202-X), and Statistics Canada (2010), Gross Domestic Product by Industry (Catalogue no. 15-001-X). (Return to Reference 10)
  11. CCA (2009), op. cit., p. 4. (Return to Reference 11)
  12. Ibid., p. 6. (Return to Reference 12)
  13. This is an updated version of the table presented in CCA (2009), op. cit., pp. 90-91. Data was obtained from the OECD's Structural Analysis Database (STAN), 2009. For post-2003 data, comparative Canada-US coverage is incomplete. (Return to Reference 13)
  14. OECD, Business Innovation Policies: Selected Country Comparisons, pp. 71-73 (report forthcoming). (Return to Reference 14)
  15. Polytechnics are bachelor-degree granting colleges in Alberta and British Columbia (NAIT Polytechnic, SAIT Polytechnic and BCIT) that have been formally recognized by these provinces as polytechnic institutes. (Return to Reference 15)
  16. OECD (2010), Education at a Glance 2010. Graduation rates "correspond to the estimated percentage of an age cohort that will complete tertiary education, based on current patterns of graduation… Graduation rates provide an indication of the current production of higher-level knowledge by each country's education system" (p. 78). (Return to Reference 16)
  17. CCA (2009), op. cit., p. 60. (Return to Reference 17)
  18. Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity (2010), Beyond the Recovery: Report Card on Canada 2010, p. 35. (Return to Reference 18)
  19. STIC (2009), op. cit., p. 44 (drawing on work of the Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity). (Return to Reference 19)
  20. Ibid., p. 34. (Return to Reference 20)
  21. OECD (2010), Main Science and Technology Indicators (Vol. 2010/1). (Return to Reference 21)
  22. STIC (2009), op. cit., p. 36. (Return to Reference 22)
  23. CCA (2009), op. cit., p. 8. (Return to Reference 23)
  24. Ibid., p. 8. (Return to Reference 24)
  25. Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity (2010), op. cit., pp. 39-40. (Return to Reference 25)
  26. For more information on issues related to international competition, see Competition Policy Review Panel (2008), Compete to Win. (Return to Reference 26)
  27. The Government of Canada recently held a public consultation process aimed at informing the development of a digital economy strategy for Canada. The process covered a range of issues related to ICT. For more information, readers can refer to the following website: (Return to Reference 27)
  28. Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (2009), Policy on Evaluation. (Return to Reference 28)
  29. OECD, Business Innovation Policies: Selected Country Comparisons, p. 7 (report forthcoming). (Return to Reference 29)
  30. Ibid., p. 8. (Return to Reference 30)
  31. STIC (2009), op. cit., p. 21. (Return to Reference 31)
  32. OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective. The OECD defines government direct R&D funding as including grants, loans, and procurement. It defines government indirect R&D funding as including tax incentives such as R&D tax credits, R&D allowances, reductions in R&D workers' wage taxes and social security contributions, and accelerated depreciation of R&D capital. (Return to Reference 32)
  33. Ibid., p. 76. (Return to Reference 33)