Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Networks, Collaborations and Linkages

Introduction

This reference document is intended to provide supplementary information relating to "networks, collaborations, and linkages," one of the four key inputs to business innovation discussed in Section 2 of the Panel's Consultation Paper. The other three inputs are: (1) ideas and knowledge; (2) talented, educated, and entrepreneurial people; and (3) capital and financing. Federal support for business R&D takes the form of specific initiatives that help businesses develop or access each input. As such, understanding the larger Canadian context for each input is essential to examining the role and effectiveness of the initiatives at the core of this Review.

Supplementary Information

The following key facts build on topics covered in the portion of the Panel's discussion paper pertaining to networks, collaborations, and linkages:

  • Canada ranks first in the G7 for the number of scientific articles it produces, relative to the size of its population. It also places first in the G-7 for the number of articles resulting from both domestic and international collaboration (as measured through co-authorship) on a per capita basis. The graph below depicts scientific articles per capita by type of collaboration.

    Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective. The reference year is 2008.
  • Canada places above the OECD average –  and second in the G7 - for the proportion of higher education expenditures on R&D financed by industry.

    Source: OECD (2010), Main Science and Technology Indicators (Vol. 2010/1). The reference year is 2007.
  • Internationally, the production of scientific knowledge is shifting from individuals to groups, from single to multiple institutions, and from national to international. The below graph depicts trends in co-operation on scientific articles for the 1985-2007 period.

    Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective. The data is based on research articles in natural and medical sciences and engineering.
  • New players are emerging on the international research stage and cross-border collaboration is intensifying. In the below figures (1998 and 2008), the size of bubbles reflects the number of scientific publications and the thickness of the link indicates the intensity of co-authorship, a measure of collaboration.

    1998
    Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective.
    2008
    Source: OECD (2010), Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective.
  • Canadian universities produce fewer patent applications per dollar of R&D expenditure than US universities. The following graph depicts the number of patent applications filed per one million dollars of research expenditures.

    Source: Association of University Technology Managers, US Licensing Activity Survey and Canadian Licensing Activity Survey, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2007. Based on year-2000 constant dollars.
  • Canadian universities receive relatively less licensing income per dollar of R&D expenditure than US universities. The following graph depicts licensing income received (USD) per one million dollars of research expenditures.

    Source: Association of University Technology Managers, US Licensing Activity Survey and Canadian Licensing Activity Survey, Fiscal Years 2004 and 2007. Based on year-2000 constant dollars.
  • Canada ranks second-to-last in the G7 for the number of triadic patents on a per capita basis. The following graph depicts triadic patents per thousand people.

    Source: OECD (2010), Main Science and Technology Indicators (Vol. 2010/1). The reference year is 2008.