Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Innovation Models

Introduction

This reference document is intended to provide supplementary information relating to the discussion of business innovation in Section 2 of the panel's Consultation Paper. In that section, the panel notes that examining the effectiveness of federal support for business R&D activity requires an understanding of the wider context in which business innovation occurs.

To that end, the paper presents a modified version of the business innovation model presented in the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA)'s report entitled Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short. The original CCA model is presented here.

Source: Council of Canadian Academies (2009), Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short.
top of page

Supplementary Information

The panel used a modified version of the above model in the consultation paper, as it proved particularly useful in helping to explain the larger innovation context and to conceptualize how federal R&D programs fit within that context.

Having said that, during its deliberations leading to the release of the consultation paper, the panel examined a number of innovation models, all of which bring interesting perspectives to the issue.

The following are examples of some of these models:

  • "Firm-centered" model of innovation — Industry Canada.

    Source: Industry Canada (2005).
  • Model of supports and pressures encouraging innovation — Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity.

    Source: Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity (2010), Trade, innovation, and prosperity (Working Paper 14, September 2010).
  • The Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation's model of the innovation process.

    Source: Ontario Commercialization Network Review, Steering Committee Report (February 2009).
  • Finland model — placing institutions against the part of the innovation process they support and the form of support they provide.

    Source: Luke Georghiou et al. (2003), Evaluation of the Finnish Innovation Support System, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Finland (Publications 5/2003).
  • Science, Technology and Innovation Council model of the innovation system.

    Source: Science, Technology and Innovation Council, Innovation Roadmap.