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Innovation Models


This reference document is intended to provide supplementary information relating to the discussion of business innovation in Section 2 of the panel's Consultation Paper. In that section, the panel notes that examining the effectiveness of federal support for business R&D activity requires an understanding of the wider context in which business innovation occurs.

To that end, the paper presents a modified version of the business innovation model presented in the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA)'s report entitled Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short. The original CCA model is presented here.

Source: Council of Canadian Academies (2009), Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short.
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Supplementary Information

The panel used a modified version of the above model in the consultation paper, as it proved particularly useful in helping to explain the larger innovation context and to conceptualize how federal R&D programs fit within that context.

Having said that, during its deliberations leading to the release of the consultation paper, the panel examined a number of innovation models, all of which bring interesting perspectives to the issue.

The following are examples of some of these models:

  • "Firm-centered" model of innovation — Industry Canada.

    Source: Industry Canada (2005).
  • Model of supports and pressures encouraging innovation — Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity.

    Source: Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity (2010), Trade, innovation, and prosperity (Working Paper 14, September 2010).
  • The Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation's model of the innovation process.

    Source: Ontario Commercialization Network Review, Steering Committee Report (February 2009).
  • Finland model — placing institutions against the part of the innovation process they support and the form of support they provide.

    Source: Luke Georghiou et al. (2003), Evaluation of the Finnish Innovation Support System, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Finland (Publications 5/2003).
  • Science, Technology and Innovation Council model of the innovation system.

    Source: Science, Technology and Innovation Council, Innovation Roadmap.